The piano is estimated to have been invented around 1700 by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Italy. The piano is an acoustic and keyed musical instrument. In the piano, the sound is obtained through the strings. When the keys of the piano are pressed, the wooden hammer inside creates the sound by hitting the strings. Because the wooden hammer strikes the strings, the piano is sometimes classified as a percussion instrument. The piano musical instrument is widely used, especially in classical and jazz music. It is a very suitable instrument for solo performances, ensemble, chamber music, accompaniment, composition and rehearsal. The piano is not an easily portable instrument and is one of the most widely used musical instruments in the world with its price, versatility and ability to be in many places at the same time compared to other musical instruments.
Acoustic pianos usually have 88 keys (52 white keys, 36 black keys) with a wooden case that also protects the soundboard and metal strings. When the keys are pressed, the piano makes a sound through the strings inside, and when the key is released, the strings are silenced by the damper (vibration reducing part). But with the help of pedals, it is possible to prolong the sound, even if the fingers are lifted from the keys.
The history of the Piano
The first piano in history was made by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Florence, Italy in the 1700s. Cristofori's greatest achievement is to provide a solution to the main mechanical problem of the piano, that the sound is not damped by the impact of the hammer when the hammer hits the strings, and that the hammer can be separated from the strings very quickly and the note can be played again. He produced around 20 pianos until his death in 1732.
The contribution of the French Marius to this instrument was to find the harpsichord with the hammer. The Saxonian Silbermann, on the other hand, developed Schröter's hammer system and, benefiting from Bach's valuable advice, was able to achieve an equal voice over the entire pitch of the keyboard. In Augsburg, organ maker Johann Andreas Stein created the so-called German or Viennese mechanism pianos. In 1789, Stein replaced the knee pads that were used to specify the details with pedals.
The real founder of the piano industry is the German Zumpe, who realized the so-called "guided" mechanical piano. Irish William Southwell built the first flat piano in 1789. Sebastian Erard introduced an innovation in 1822 that greatly influenced piano construction technique (dual thrust languages). Henri Pape found the cross wire and felted hammer. James Thom installed the articulated iron roof.
What are the types of pianos?
With the recent technological developments, the piano, which is an instrument of the chordophone, has been developed in electric, electronic and digital forms as well as acoustic.
Pianos are divided into types according to the working principle of the genre.
There are three different types of pianos. These are respectively;
Grand pianos, Upright pianos and digital pianos. Each of these pianos has its own unique features, each designed for the needs and environments of the pianist.
Upright type pianos are called pianos with their backs to the wall. A type of piano with all the strings standing vertically, as opposed to a grand piano. Because their string lengths are shorter, they stand upright and take up less space, their sound is not as annoying as grand pianos, and they are designed for comfortable working in the home environment.
Electronic (Digital) Piano
It is known by this name because electric current converts sound into frequency and makes sound. It is one of the most popular types of piano. With the technological developments, piano sounds close to acoustic sound began to be obtained. You can play wherever you want thanks to the ease of carrying it comfortably.
The grand piano, which is used in classical music, orchestra and solo piano recitals, has a keyboard consisting of 88 keys in the front section and a wide tail in the back section that allows the sound to emerge and spread strongly. The sound of the piano is directly proportional to its strong or light pressing.